Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Confusion over Colostrum Supplements and Colostrum Replacer

I made a presentation at the Central Ontario Agricultural Conference on March 4. The audience was not shy - they asked plenty of questions. 

Several of the questions related to colostrum supplements and replacers. More than one person in the audience tried to use the terms to mean the same thing. 

So, I went through the definitions:

Supplements provide just that, they only add antibodies.

Replacers provide the full range of colostrum content (antibodies, protein, fat, carbs, etc) possible in a processed product.

Besides, I added, replacers typically cost four to five times as much as supplements. 

Click HERE for a background page on supplements.

Click HERE for the one-page Colostrum Replacer Guidelines.

The experiences with these products among those in the audience included using a supplement when feeding colostrum from a heifer, using supplements during weather-stress times (i.e., winter). I told them how easy it is to check antibody concentration in colostrum using a Brix refractometer. Click HERE for resource on doing this.

We also talked about using a replacer when the colostrum supply was tight, and using replacer when the dam was suspected of a disease that could be transmitted through colostrum.

As I always do during a presentation, I urged the dairymen (and women) present to work with their herd veterinarian to collect "as-fed" colostrum samples for bacteria culturing. Click HERE for a protocol for collecting colostrum samples. 

Thursday, March 2, 2017

Fly Control in March?

That is the title of the March calf management newsletter. The key points are:
·        How effective was our fly control last year?
·        Using an integrated pest management (IPM) approach, what will be the most effective methods this fly season?
·        Selecting fly control methods
·        Scheduling fly control activities

Included are links to pest management resources including Cornell University's IPM program and organic pest control recommendations. 

Monday, February 27, 2017

Hard Calvings and Dystocia Calves

I tried to use an Internet link in one of my resources in the www.calffacts.com library. It did not work. While trying to fix this non-working link I discovered that there was a whole library of resources on calving and calf care at my finger tips. 

So, here it is:

click HERE to go directly to the site.
or
type in https://www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/ilm/proinfo/calving/notes/table.htm

When you arrive there you will find the Table of Contents for the entire site including these major headings:

1. Dystocia
2. Calf delivery
3. Post-calving care of the calf - includes specific monitoring points with thresholds for each of the six points.
4. Post-calving care of the dam

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Is the Colostrum Warm Enough to Feed?

Ideal feeding temperature for feeding colostrum? Just above calf body temperature. If folks want a number I tell them 103F (39C).

So, what's a practical way to estimate this temperature? Sure, the old-time method of using the inside of your wrist just like Mom did with a baby bottle.

How about a more practical, quick way to use on-farm?

The calving barn supervisor at Bos Dairy in Indiana offers this suggestion. Don’t guess if the colostrum is correct feeding temperature. 

Just push a rapid-read dial thermometer through the vent hole in a nursing nipple on the bottle containing the colostrum. Set the bottle into warm water. It’s easy to see when the colostrum is up to calf-body temperature.

To make things even easier and reduce guessing, use a tag pen to make a mark on the thermometer dial showing the correct feeding temperature. 

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Colostrum Bacteria Control
(Up-dated February, 2017)

I spent time today checking to see that the Internet links are working on the back issues of the calf management newsletter. That is when I came to this issue, Colostrum Bacteria Control.

The basic principles I outlined in this issue are still as valid in February, 2017 as they were when I wrote about them initially in December, 2007.

I up-dated the links - of special interest is the short article on bacteria in milk - you can find this at
http://articles.extension.org/pages/11811/sources-and-causes-of-high-bacteria-counts-in-raw-milk:-an-abbreviated-review or click HERE.

The key points in the article that apply to colostrum as well are:

1. Microbial contamination from within the udder

2. Microbial contamination from the exterior of the udder

3. Influences of equipment cleaning and sanitizing procedures

4. Milk storage temperature and time

Enjoy this great little "checklist" on how bacteria get into and grow in colostrum.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Low Cost Ways to Improve Calf Care

I was asked a question at a meeting of dairy producers.

"I enjoyed your presentation. But, what are some low-cost ways to improve calf care?"

So, we ticked off several management-based practices that would not require little or no capital investment in facilities or purchase of equipment.

Here is the short list: 

Dip umbilical cords on newborn calves. Click HERE for a short economic analysis of the profitability of navel dipping. Click HERE for "Navel dipping - advantages and alternatives."

Milk fresh cows soon after milking. At 10 hours post calving 27 percent of initial antibodies are gone. The best quality colostrum is collected as soon as practical post-calving.

Check colostrum quality before feeding to newborn calves. Go to www.calffacts.com and select "Colostrum: Testing using a Brix refractometer."  Click HERE for a quick review of variations in quality and quantity among cows.

Use human standards of cleanliness when managing colostrum. At www.calffacts.com see "Colostrum: Reducing coliform counts - a check list." Also, click HERE for a checklist to evaluate your sanitation procedures.

Feed colostrum to a newborn calf as soon as practical after birth. 

Feed enough good quality colostrum to newborn calves. By 4 weeks one estimate is a loss of $48 per calf by not feeding enough good quality colostrum  

Check colostrum management effectiveness by measuring immunity levels. See www.calffacts.com, select "Testing for Passive Immunity" or click HERE.

Are any of these alternatives viable ones you could use to upgrade your calf care?


Friday, February 17, 2017

Special Care for the Dystocia Calf

I updated several older issues of the calf management newsletter this morning. One of them had the title above - special care for the dystocia calf.

The summary is:
  • Calving difficulty, sometimes called dystocia, affects between 13 to 15 % of Holstein calves.
  • 48-hour survival rates drop drastically for calves when deliveries require 2 or more persons, mechanical or surgical intervention compared to unassisted births.
  • 120-day survival rates for calves when deliveries require 2 or more persons, mechanical or surgical intervention are 70 % less than unassisted births.
  • Treatment rates are higher for dystocia calves (scours 17%, pneumonia 70%) compared to calves experiencing unassisted births.
  • Providing special care, both in the first few hours and first two weeks, can cut both death losses and treatments for scours and/or pneumonia.
If you never saw this issue or don't remember (it was back in January, 2013) you may enjoy reviewing these low-cost recommendations that promise significant returns. 

Click HERE to select this issue. Other issues are at www.atticacows.com in the Resources section under Calf Management Newsletter.